Holistic, innovative and integrated approaches are tested, adopted and shared in a limited number of areas affected by climate change (‘eco-villages’).
Three projects were selected from a call for proposals, one in each of three types of ecosystems (coastal zones and islands, drylands, and highlands) deemed particularly vulnerable to climate change. This is to ensure that successful practices can be identified and replicated across the most vulnerable areas of the country, taking account of the specific characteristics of each type of ecosystem.
The first project is being implemented on Pemba Island by the local NGO Community Forests Pemba (CFP), in collaboration with Zanzibar government authorities. Six communities are involved, in Fundo, Uvinje, Kokota, Uwandani, Vitongoji and Pujini. Main activities include the transfer of land ownership from government to communities under secure tenure arrangements; the development of agroforestry and community-based afforestation and reforestation; the implementation of kitchen gardens and resilient agricultural systems supporting diversified fruit, vegetable and nut production; livelihood diversification through activities such as the production of fuel briquettes, fuel-efficient stoves and compressed earth blocks, beekeeping and composting; investment in rainwater harvesting and seed storage facilities; and the development of alternative energy systems.
The second is being implemented in Chololo village, near Dodoma, by the Institute of Rural Development Planning in partnership with local government authorities and other organisations. Main activities include awareness raising and improved natural resources management at the community level; the promotion of “climate-smart” agricultural innovations (in areas such as the use of improved seed varieties, improved post-harvest handling and storage, soil erosion control, soil fertility and moisture management, improved livestock breeding practices); diversification into new activities such as aquaculture, beekeeping and leather making; tree planting; improvements in water supply for human and livestock use, notably through water harvesting and improved storage; the building of energy-efficient stoves with local materials and the construction of domestic biogas plants; the installation of a local weather station; the construction of an eco-village centre; and a range of activities aimed at sharing results and disseminating innovation.
The third project is located in the Uluguru Mountains. It involves 7 villages across the Morogoro and Mvomero districts. It is implemented by the Sokoine University of Agriculture. Main activities include the promotion and development of sustainable, climate-resilient agricultural practices supporting higher incomes for the population; the enhancement of water use efficiency in agricultural production; the promotion of reforestation and fuel-efficient stoves; the creation of enabling conditions to finance the adoption of new agricultural practices and investments; the establishment of community-managed organisations with adequate capacities for ensuring sustainable, fair and gender-inclusive use of natural resources; and the development of guidelines and best practices for scaling up at the national level.
All projects encourage the sustainable use of natural resources at the community level. Through this approach, it is expected that holistic, innovative and integrated methods can be tested, adopted and shared in a number of different areas of Tanzania affected by climate change. Local communities, especially women, will be empowered and more able to cope with the worst consequences of climate change. Results from the eco-village projects are to be integrated into policy making, in line with the ongoing decentralisation process.