The Pacific islands are among the countries most vulnerable to climate change globally, but demonstrate considerable variety in the level of vulnerability between and within countries. Coastal communities, atoll islands, and the densely populated and low-lying deltaic regions on larger islands are particularly vulnerable to even small changes in climatic variables, especially rainfall patterns and tropical storm patterns, and to sea level rise. Vulnerability results from high population densities and growth rates, and scarce natural resources (particularly land and water). High exposure to natural hazards is also an issue in cyclone and typhoon zones. Poorly developed infrastructure, poverty, scarce economic resources and the small size of countries with a high external economic dependency also present challenges.
In this context, the GCCA makes funding available to the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) and the Secretariat of the Regional Environmental Programme (SPREP) to support the preparation of adaptation roadmaps; to finance the implementation of concrete actions in participating countries; and also to implement activities that strengthen capacities and institutions in view of a more effective response to climate change.
Support the governments of the Cook Islands, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Tonga, Tuvalu and regional bodies' efforts in tackling the adverse effects of climate change, in line with the Pacific Islands Framework for Action on Climate Change (PIFACC).
Contribute to a more coherent, coordinated, efficient and mainstreamed way of delivering climate change adaptation support at national and regional level.
At the national level, countries are better equipped to mainstream climate change in policies, planning processes and country budgets. Concrete adaptation actions are developed and implemented.
Planned activities include the production of 'adaptation roadmaps' providing for the integration of climate change adaptation in the form of climate change resilient strategies in the governments' development policies and budgets; implementation of initial activities foreseen in the roadmaps, and of other strategic adaptation priorities identified by the countries.
This notably involves a review of existing plans and related ongoing actions; coordination meetings/workshops with relevant stakeholders; preparation of a report by country with concrete suggestions on pilot projects; in-country consultation sessions to ensure endorsement of the selected projects, and decision making on the implementation process; and the implementation of pilot projects.
At the regional level, capacity to support national adaptation needs, and to coordinate, promote and establish innovative regional coordinating mechanisms on climate change, is strengthened.
This involves the organisation of, and participation in, workshops, conferences and seminars aimed at coordinating activities in the field of climate change in the Pacific. A new regional mechanism must also be set up to help countries access international funding.
- Climate change profiles have been prepared for the nine countries. They provide country-specific background information on development strategies, the economy and financial management, describe the current and future expected climate and the response to climate change (including governance arrangements), assess ongoing climate change activities, and identify national priorities as well as gaps and constraints. They are available as follows:
- Work is in progress to prepare a national climate change policy for Palau.
- National Action Plans for climate change adaptation and disaster risk management in Kiribati and Nauru are now complete.
- Climate change communication training workshops held in Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Kiribati and Tuvalu focusing on different media; one regional documentary and four national climate change documentaries prepared and launched at a side event at the Joint Meeting of the Pacific Platform for Disaster Risk Management and the Pacific Climate Change Roundtable, 11th July 2013. The five videos, currently available in the GCCA and SPC YouTube channel.
- FSM: A hydrogeological assessment of water resources in outer islands is being conducted to inform water sector planning in the face of climate change projections.
- Kiribati: Revision of the Public Health Ordinance taking into account the National Climate Change and Health Action Plan (2011) is in progress.
- Marshall Islands: A National Climate Change Dialogue was undertaken in September 2014 and work is underway to prepare a Marshallese Glossary of terms on Climate Change.
- Nauru: A 20-year water and sanitation master plan is under preparation.
- Tonga: A Diagnostic study of coastal characteristics and issues in Tongatapu has been prepared (2014) and a framework for a coastal management plan developed.
- Tuvalu: An agricultural marketing plan to promote the use of local produce and enhance food security in the face of climate change has been prepared.
- Preparatory work for pilot adaptation projects is well under way. Extensive national consultations involving government, NGOs and community stakeholders were held in each country between March 2012 and February 2013 to determine the focus sector for their projects. These focus sectors include agriculture (1 country), freshwater resource management (4 countries), health (1 country), and coastal zone and marine resources management (3 countries). Project concept notes have been approved for 6 countries, i.e. Tonga, Nauru, Cook Islands, Niue, Palau and Kiribati; their preparation is in progress elsewhere. Following the organisation of a regional training workshop on project preparation and monitoring using the logical framework approach, participatory workshops to design on-the-ground climate change adaptation projects have now been held in 5 countries. Implementation of the Cook Islands project started in April 2013. National coordinators have been recruited to assist with project coordination in Cook Islands, FSM and Tonga. It is anticipated that projects in Nauru, Tuvalu and Marshall Islands will be starting in the first quarter of 2014.
- Training in proposal preparation: following a regional training workshop in proposal preparation using the logical framework approach (October 2012) 12 national training workshops were held involving 291 participants in 2013-14.
- With regard to climate change finance, a review was undertaken on the nine project countries and the extent to which climate change is mainstreamed into national and sector policies with a view to informing their access to climate change funds delivered through budget support modalities in particular between June and September 2013. Climate change mainstreaming profiles have been prepared for each country. A regional meeting involving 55 participants from finance and climate change government ministries in Pacific island countries, development partners and international experts was held from 25-27 September 2013 in Tonga to share experiences, promote understanding and advance national priorities relating to climate change finance particularly in relation to budget support..
- To support regional information and knowledge exchange, a matrix of all SPC climate change activities in the Pacific has been prepared, published, and was updated in 2013. Two regional training workshops have also been conducted to train country representatives from the North and South Pacific countries to upload information into the Pacific Climate Change Portal.
- Regional cooperation on climate change has been strengthened, notably in the context of the first steering committee and planning meeting held with country partners in May 2012 to plan activities at the national and regional level, a second steering committee meeting held in December 2012 to plan 2013 activities and preparatory work for the Pacific Platform for Disaster Risk Management and the Pacific Climate Change Round Table (July 2013). The third project Steering Committee meeting was held in Tonga, 30 September – 1st October 2013. and also involved Caribbean Indian Ocean and Pacific partners in GCCA bilateral and regional projects and development partners.
- Fostering project ownership by countries: Most climate change projects in the region are based on a pre-selected sector or area of focus. This project provides countries with the opportunity to prioritize their needs and select the particular area of focus for their field adaptation project and the related mainstreaming activities. In some countries, new procedures have had to be developed which combine community, technical and political involvement.
- Combining ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’ approaches to climate change adaptation: Experience shows that a system embracing both ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’ approaches to the adaptation process has the best chance of improving the adaptive capacity of Pacific inhabitants. Through this project, practical experience can be acquired and shared through climate change mainstreaming combined with the implementation of on-the-ground adaptation projects, based on a participatory, community-based and culturally sensitive approach.
- Delivering training efficiently: Regional training workshops following by in-country delivery through national training workshops is a model that works well providing tailored training to a large number of participants; impact evaluation after the training is another useful tool.
- Using the logical framework approach (LFA) to design on-the-ground adaptation projects: The LFA has been used in multi-stakeholder workshops involving government and community members, and is proving to be a very effective tool to plan and structure project activities.
- Collaboration with other development partners in the joint delivery of activities is beneficial and an efficient use of funding. Regional collaboration also requires trust building over time, patience and perseverance. Over the course of the GCCA: PSIS project there have been significant advances in regional collaboration between SPC, SPREP, PIFS, USP, GIZ and UNDP in particular. This is based on recognition of a particular organisation’s skills and experience and the identification and implementation of specific joint activities where appropriate.
- Embedding project officers in different regional organisations is one effective way to achieve regional collaboration. In the case of the GCCA: PSIS project, one project team member was recruited and managed by SPREP, thereby providing for collaboration and integration at the technical and implementation level. Similarly having one team member based in the North Pacific has been effective and efficient in addressing sub-regional issues.
- Paving the way for climate-related budget support and enhanced access to climate finance: Helping the countries assess their readiness for climate change funding via general and sector budget support will develop national capacity and enhance communication between finance and climate change stakeholders at the national level. Collaboration with other Pacific regional organisations in this field will in the long term enhance the capacity of Pacific countries to obtain and effectively absorb climate-related funding.
- Enhancing skills in using local media to portray accurate and effective climate change messaging: The provision of training to media personnel in the preparation and sharing of climate change stories will provide sustainable benefits beyond the life of the project. Sharing experience and good practices across the region is another lesson learned, notably through the use of video, which proved to be a very powerful communication tool.
- Lessons Learnt Roadshow, which reached more than 200 climate change professionals in 4 Pacific countries proved a very effective way to discuss the lessons and experiences with other professionals in other organisations. The modality adopted by the project – short video, short presentation on a handful of case studies, followed by 30-60 minutes discussion – proved very effective and were replicated by two other projects/programmes in 2017.
- Nine short national videos on lessons learnt have been prepared and are currently being finalised with the help of SPC’s Regional Media Centre; the first complete video was launched in Tonga on 12th February 2015.
- The project was closed in November 2016.
- The final external project evaluation was conducted from February to April 2016 and showed the project was successfully implemented with six of the eight evaluation criteria receiving the highest rating: Very Good in Relevance/Coherence/EC value added ; Effectiveness; Impact; Environment and Visibility. The project scored Good in Sustainability and Gender. (see more: http://ccprojects.gsd.spc.int/final-evaluation/)
- All project published documents (including the final report and final evaluation) are available on the SPC website at: http://ccprojects.gsd.spc.int/eu-gcca-psis/ or here: http://ccprojects.gsd.spc.int/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/web-Volume_1_Global_Climate_Change_Alliance_PICTs.pdf
- The final report shows:
- 82,905 persons benefitted from on-the-ground projects
- 2,753 kilolitres of additional rainwater storage were provided
- 1,500 m of coastal protection was constructed
- 4.5 acres of agroforestry created where 9 climate resilient crop varieties were trialled
- 5 water quality laboratories were built or refurbished
- 248,593 people benefitted from climate change mainstreaming
- 119,073 people benefitted from improved access to climate change funding
- 2,938 people benefitted from climate change consultations and training
- The project contributed to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): primarily SDG 13 – climate action; secondly 2 – no hunger, 3- good health, 4 – quality education, 5 – gender equality, 6 – clean water and sanitation, 9 – infrastructure, 14 – life below water.
- During the closure period in 2016 the project was invited to present at:
- EU Development Days, Brussels, 15-16 June 2016
- Keynote address at Symposium on Climate Change Adaptation in the Pacific Region, Lautoka, Fiji, 26-28 July 2016.
- GCCA+ Global Learning Event 2016, Brussels, 12-14 September 2016.