Accounting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a major focus within waste management. This link provides you options to download the paper which analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting and their distinctive features and approaches: national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), corporate accounting, as part of the annual reporting on environmental issues and social responsibility, life-cycle assessments (LCA), as an environmental basis for assessing waste management systems and technologies, and finally, the carbon trading methodology or more specifically, the clean development mechanism (CDM) methodology, introduced to support cost-effective reduction in GHG emissions. These GHG accounting methodologies use technical data on GHG emissions from specific waste technologies and plants as a common starting point. However, limited availability of data and different accounting scopes leads to many ways of quantifying emissions. Transparency in waste related GHG accounting requires clarification of waste type, waste composition, the time period considered, GHGs included, global warming potential s(GWP) assigned to the GHGs, counting of biogenic carbon dioxide, choice of system boundaries, interactions with the energy system, and generic emissions factors. In order to enhance transparency and consistency, a format called the upstream-operating-downstream framework (UOD) is proposed for reporting basic technology-related data regarding GHG issues. This distinguishes between direct emissions from waste management technologies, indirect upstream emissions (use of energy and materials) and indirect downstream emissions (production of energy, delivery of secondary materials) activities.
Emmanuel Gentil, Thomas H. Christensen Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark Emmanuelle Aoustin Veolia Environnement, Paris, Direction Environnement – Risques et Impacts Environnementaux, 38, Avenue Kléber, 75116 Paris, France