Climate change and integrated coastal zone management in Senegal (GCCA+)

At a glance

Duration
2019-01-01 to 2024-01-01
Status
Active programmes
Region
Africa
Country
Senegal
Total budget
5,30 M€
Sector(s)
Countries

Despite its political stability, recent economic progress, and the development of major infrastructure, particularly in the Dakar region, Senegal remains with a high poverty rate (46.7% of the population) and vulnerable to environmental and climatic shocks, including recurring natural disasters, particularly floods and droughts. The latter are expected to increase in frequency and intensity due to increased climate variability. 

The coastal zone, in particular, comprises 67% of Senegal's population and concentrates 90% of industrial production. It is characterized by low-lying, rapidly expanding and densely populated urbanization, with high water tables and poorly planned drainage systems. As a result, relatively small amounts of rainfall can easily flood some neighborhoods. Thus, in addition to extreme events, rising sea levels place much of the coastal population, infrastructure and ecosystems at risk of flooding and erosion. 

Climate change affects climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture (70% of production is rain-fed), livestock and fisheries, which account for 20% of GDP and employ the majority of the workforce. Food security is under high stress due to low yields and high population growth. It is estimated that more than 15% of rural households and more than 8% of urban households are food insecure, and the country imports about 60% of its cereal needs, mainly rice. Fishing has a special place in adaptation. Small pelagics (sardinella) have an important role to play in food security, accounting for 77% of landings and up to 80% of protein consumed. The change in temperature of marine waters causes the stocks to migrate northward and offshore, and thus out of reach of small fishers, resulting in risk catches and human losses.

Other sectors of the economy are also affected: the tourism industry is affected by the destruction of often costly infrastructures. The retreat of the coastline in the affected areas is estimated at one to two meters per year on average, and the scale of erosion is such that many small hotel owners have had to convert while the more affluent are trying to fight this phenomenon in their own way. 

The Sine Saloum and Casamance regions are particularly fragile. With many islands, very landlocked, they are unable to seize development opportunities, despite their environmental assets. The Saloum Delta Biosphere Reserve (RBDS) is home to more than 114 species of fish in 52 families, and covers the reproduction and growth site of more than 50 species of fish. As such, the RBDS is a wetland of international importance as it meets the specific criterion 4 of the Convention on Wetlands. It presents good potential for income-generating activities that can be developed by the populations of the area.  In spite of this, this refuge of plant and animal species is undergoing a significant degradation essentially marked by a progressive destruction of the mangrove swamp due to abusive cutting, and an intensification and generalization of destructive fishing practices.

Casamance is characterized as the wettest zone in Senegal, with a hydrographic network that structures the landscape and human activities: the topography, generally low (about 40m), gives Casamance a diversity of reliefs ranging from plateaus to lowlands, valued for arboriculture, food production and rice growing. Climatic conditions contribute directly to accelerated soil degradation: salinization 2 to 3 times higher than that of sea water, water erosion, silting of the lowlands. This soil degradation, particularly salinization, weakens the living conditions of adjacent rural societies, especially in island villages, jeopardizing the drinking water supply of the populations and their agricultural activities.

GCCA's action programme
Geographical scope
Country groups
Initial GCCA/GCCA+ contribution
5,000,000.00 €

Specific objective

The specific objective is to sustainably improve the climate resilience of coastal areas.


Outputs

The products are :

  1. The institutions are accompanied in their climate action, particularly in the ICZM ;
  2. Field actions in favor of local climate resilience are implemented (Petite Côte, Sine Saloum and Casamance);
  3. Knowledge and communication on climate issues are strengthened, with a focus on coastal zones.

Activities

Output 1 on institutional support, the aim is to support the DEEC in its coordination role and the sectoral managers in their effective monitoring of their climate action, particularly in relation to the efforts made in the area of Integrated Coastal Zone Management. The anticipated activities are :

  1. To animate the relevant climatic themes at the level of the coastal zone.
  • To establish and maintain a panorama of climate actions, in the coastal zone, and by sector, allowing to have an always updated knowledge of the climate actions in progress and planned;
  • Organize and participate in the consultation between competent authorities on climate policy, 
  • To make the steering and monitoring committees of the ICZM/AMCC+ project operational by assigning a significant role to these two committees in the organization and orientations of the project as well as in its operation; 
  • Elaborate the local ICZM plans for the Saloum and Louga zone and update the plans for Dakar, Saint Louis and Petite Côte.

2.Support the agenda of integrating climate issues into national policies.

  • Identify integration plans at the sectoral level (coastal, water and fisheries - mitigation), and their status;
  • Monitor efforts to identify and integrate climate policy objectives in the following key sectors (coastal, water, fisheries, etc.);
  • Formulate proposals for the development of policies and measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions;
  • Systematically include a set of indicators on the response to climate change in policy documents (see activity "monitoring and evaluation").

3. Support the implementation of Monitoring, Reporting and Verification systems for climate actions at the sectoral level (coastal, water, fisheries).

  • Support the implementation of a SNV-type system for climate actions, which allows to monitor flows in support for climate action, to track the results obtained and to have basic elements to assess the impact. This will involve assisting in the definition and implementation of SNV systems. 
  • In connection with the SNV, define a monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system, identify and structure the data needed for decision-making;
  • Define sectoral M&E, with monitoring indicators defined and monitored within the sectors themselves (coastal, water, fisheries);

4. International agenda and reporting on climate and coastal actions.
Support Senegal's participation in the international agenda on climate action, particularly through its action in ICZM ;

  • Identify in the sub-region best practices in terms of climate actions at the public level, potential support, research programs, university courses, teaching and training related to ICZM and climate issues;
  • Participate in the preparation of reports that Senegal must submit to international bodies, particularly in the context of

Output 2 on climate resilience at the local level, the intervention will focus on concrete measures to support communities, with a focus on the most climate-vulnerable, in the Petite Côte, Sine Saloum and Casamance. 

5. Concrete measures at the local level.


This will involve supporting actions in line with local priorities in terms of integrated management and in particular Local ICZM Plans, when available. The preparation and implementation of these actions will have to involve all the decision-making levels and competent services in order to clearly define the problem, the challenges and stakes, the potential solutions and the practical modalities that can be implemented. The actions will have to involve the State structures specialized in the implementation of each of them (for example: Water and Forestry, DPN, DAMCP), supervised at the general level by the DEEC. Each action should also promote community participation throughout the process, from the collection of community views during initial planning to implementation, and take into account the time needed for studies and pre-testing in order to have a benchmarking of actions in an appropriate time frame. The actions to be supported will make it possible to implement a range of measures on a pilot basis by associating institutions specialized in the implementation of each of them. 

The actions to be supported include

  • A dredging operation of the Somone, whose silting brought by the rising tides endangers the mangrove and the whole ecosystem of the lagoon;
  • So-called natural solutions, which in the long term have the most positive effects in terms of erosion control and the restoration of coastal ecosystems (for example: vegetalization, reconstitution of ecosystems and landscapes);
  • Coastal or river development works, such as: construction or rehabilitation of dykes; construction or rehabilitation of drainage systems, dredging at river level; 
  • The establishment of sustainable systems of local management of the coastal environment in charge of waste management and recovery;
  • The fight against the advance of salinization;
  • The application of best practices in local responses to climate change, representative of the concept of integrated management (involving for example: the organization and action of intermunicipal or networked communities, the integration of the nexus "renewable energies - water management - coastal zone management", the promotion of the use of appropriate materials and construction methods to maximize environmental sustainability) ;
  • Supporting the development of the livelihoods of island and coastal communities as a response to climate change.

Output 3 on knowledge and communication, the aim is to have accurate, timely, relevant and coherent information on the issue of climate change, including the foreseeable impacts and the measures taken, and to communicate them at all levels (stakeholders, decision-makers, the public, etc.).

1. Creation of knowledge and reference points at the policy level.
The activities concern, in an indicative way, the launching of studies allowing to better and accompany the other components of the intervention, in particular the creation of knowledge and reference documents:

  • A Public Expenditure Review and Institutional Climate Analysis (PIRACA) to take stock of the budgetary financing granted by the State and its development partners; to review the institutional framework associated with the financing of climate action; to clarify the current financial dimension of climate policy and the relationship between the different classes of climate expenditure; and thus to take stock of the approach to integrating climate change into the budgetary process. Such a study would serve as a reference for climate action in Senegal in the medium term.
  •  An Analysis of Gender Aspects and Climate Resilience. Current studies on gender and climate action are informative and useful but remain general in their recommendations. Moreover, the NDC in its ICZM component remains poorly developed with regard to gender. An exercise is therefore necessary to bring about concrete changes in order, for example, to better link adaptation plans and other climate, environmental and sustainable development policies to gender policies and good practices, or to define frameworks to ensure consultation and participation of actors.
  • Data on sea level rise, by LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) technology. Reliable data are crucial for taking into account climate change in the coastal zone. This activity will fall within the framework of the national observatory of the coast, which is part of the State's priorities in terms of coastal management.
  • The DEEC will also be able to support possible cost-benefit analyses to be carried out at the sectoral level (or by branch of activity, or by sector), making it possible to better justify public climate financing at their level, but also the opportunities for "green" investments or potential markets at the level of the private sector. A prospective study is the evaluation of carbon credits in line with mangrove and filao plantation activities, in order to encourage the implementation of green infrastructure.
  • Studies to define concrete actions in a particular sub-sector directly related to the themes of the intervention, such as a Coastal Pollution Sensitivity Study (carried out in Liberia with the CSE, planned but finally not carried out in Senegal due to lack of means).
  • Other studies could be carried out according to the needs related to the information needs of the logical framework indicators, in particular on losses related to climatic events in the coastal zone. 


2. Knowledge management.

  • Support a central information system on adaptation and in the field of integration (good practices, data on integration, linkage with data on coastal ecosystems, "climate proofing" methodologies, urban planning, mapping of innovations at the adaptation and ecosystem level, ...), which would make gender and climate studies and methodologies accessible by adapting them at the local level and to the populations concerned. 
  • This system could initially be based on a system for archiving information and documents generated by the project by developing a platform for archiving and sharing information. This would establish a documentary and informational memory of the project and at the same time be able to contribute to the sharing of data and information. It would also have the quality of being able to provide all the actors associated with the project with the same information at the same time.   

3. External communication.

  • To have a functional communication in order to report on the achievement of the project and to be able to communicate on the quality of the achievements and more widely share experiences by highlighting the factors of success and failure;
  • Prepare and implement a communication plan targeted to specific stakeholders, by groups: parliamentarians and members of parliament, different sections of the private sector (industrialists, SMEs, ...), the media, young people ...
  • The partnership with the private sector aims at better economic integration and diversification, and ensuring greater relevance of private sector action in terms of local resilience. It will therefore inform and encourage green economic activities, sectors of activity related to the ecological and energy transition, sustainable management of natural resources, technical and scientific professions (understanding climate issues, what "climate" services to implement, such as technical, financial or risk/insurance support ...). 
  • Organization of a national conference every 2 years on ICZM and climate change issues.