EU Support to Implement the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) related to Green House Gas emissions in the Maldives

At a glance

2018-01-01 to 2023-01-01
Active programmes
Total budget
5,00 M€

The Republic of Maldives is one of the most vulnerable countries to the adverse impacts of climate change (GCCA+ vulnerability ranking 0.3511). With over 80 % of the total land area less than 1m above mean sea level, it is particularly affected by rising sea levels, and the majority of its land area (77%) may be underwater by the end of this century, irrespective of the possible halting of climate change. The coral reefs surrounding the Maldives are also at risk due to sea warming, threatening its two-sector economy - tourism and fisheries. Maldives' vulnerability to climate change is intensified due to its small size and widely spread geographic dispersion when regularly exposed to multiple natural hazards such as storms, droughts, heavy rains and high waves caused by cyclones in the southern Indian Ocean.

While the Maldives is not a major emitter of GHG, it is highly impacted by the adverse impacts of climate change. As outlined in Maldives' NDCs, energy consumption contributes to about 1.04 million tonnes of CO2 emissions, which is about 0.003% of global emissions. Nearly 100% of all electricity produced in the Maldives is diesel-based, and this makes its carbon emissions per unit of electricity among the highest in the region.

Increasing the share of Renewable Energy (RE) in the national energy mix is foreseen in the Maldives Energy Policy and Strategy (2016). While there is no national grid, each island has independent mini-grids and power plants, which by nature are expensive and provide an unreliable power supply. The Government has installed grid-tied diesel-solar hybrid systems in several islands. Yet the total amount of PV installed in-country since 2007 only reaches about 9MW while currently diesel generators supply 363 MW. Furthermore, it is difficult and expensive to transport fuel between islands, especially in inclement weather, increasing the risk of fuel spillage. Delays in delivery interrupt the power supply in the islands. Increasing access to modern sources of energy would help in mitigating such risks thereby increasing resilience to climate change. A reliable flow of energy also impacts women and men differently in the Maldives. Women's traditional household activities involve work which is fuel intensive. When energy is unreliable, women and girls are usually responsible to collect biomass fuel such as wood. A reliable energy supply will not only reduce their traditional household workload, but also enhance their quality of life, improve access to information and education (through radio, television and internet) and free them up for employment. A higher rate of unemployment among women is noted and makes them economically vulnerable.

GCCA's action programme
Geographical scope
Initial GCCA/GCCA+ contribution
5,000,000.00 €

Objectifs spécifiques

The Specific Objective of the current project is to support the Maldives in the achievement of their NDC target related to the reduction of GHG emissions.


The expected results (ER) are:

ER1: Photovoltaic systems installed in approximately 15 - 20 islands and effectively producing renewable energy with the aim of increasing access to sustainable energy for both women and men.

ER2: Expertise enhanced at local level to operate, and maintain the installed solar-diesel-battery hybrid power plants, and effective monitoring and reporting ensured.

ER3: The policy framework on renewable energy effectively supported.


This programme is relevant for the Agenda 2030. It contributes primarily to the progressive achievement of SDG Goal 13 Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts, but also promotes progress towards Goal 7 Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all and Goal 5 Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. This does not imply a commitment by the Maldives benefiting from this programme.


The indicative foreseen activities are listed below, per expected result.



  • Technical assistance to conduct detailed feasibility studies (conducted in a gender sensitive manner), identify the islands with diesel power plants for installing PV and related works.
  • Installation of PV systems and upgrading of existing old and inefficient diesel systems.
  • Quality control and assurance established in islands.
  • Training programme on operations and management conducted in a gender sensitive manner.


  • Capacity building activities (training, on the job support) for local utility company to make plans for RE power plants, operate PV hybrid power plants, ensuring a gender sensitive focus.
  • Develop an easy-to-use and transparent Energy Management and Monitoring and Reporting (MR) System that is accurate, reliable and credible including developing a GHG baseline and GHG emissions savings using UNFCCC approved emissions factors. This will allow the cost effectiveness and efficiency to be tracked and correctly reported into the national climate change systems.

ER 3:

- Capacity building to implement the new regulatory framework on new tariff structure and investment approval regulation.

- Assist in the development of awareness programs and materials \ for the utilities, the government and other stakeholders including island communities on the regulation and application procedures.

- Prepare reporting formats for utilities where relevant, and annual reporting for MEA.

- Design an electronic information system and registry to handle the process of issuing licenses and permits.

- Capacity building to implement the Roadmap for the low carbon development of the energy sector with particular focus on the energy efficiency programme.