Global Climate Change Alliance in Tanzania - Phase 1

At a glance

2010-06-01 to 2014-06-01
Completed programmes
Tanzania, United Republic Of
Min. of Finance, Division of Environment of the Vice-President's Office, Community Forests Pemba, Institute of Rural Development Planning, Sokoine University of Agriculture
Total budget
2,20 M€
GCCA priority area(s)

The Tanzanian National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) has identified agriculture, rangelands, water and forestry as some of the most climate change-affected sectors. Indeed, yields of major crops such as maize and rice have declined and groundwater levels have dropped due to rainfall pattern variability and soil erosion/degradation. In addition, deforestation rates are increasing due to overgrazing, wildfires, clearing for agriculture, charcoal production and over-exploitation of wood resources for commercial purposes. The situation is directly affecting the most vulnerable populations, which for the major part live in the rural, remote, drought- and flood-prone and food-insecure areas of the country. Women in particular are sharing a great deal of the burden. The response to such a wide range of negative effects must be holistic, integrated, multi-disciplinary and community-based.

GCCA's action programme
Geographical scope
Initial GCCA/GCCA+ contribution
2,200,000.00 €

Overall objective

Increase the capacity of the most vulnerable Tanzanian communities to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change through sustainable use of their natural resources.

Specific objective
  • Support the setting up of a limited number of eco-villages where innovative adaptation measures can be tested in the field of agriculture, rangeland management, water management, sanitation and biomass energy.
  • Address energy (biomass) issues through sustainable natural resources management practices (e.g. participatory forest management).


Holistic, innovative and integrated approaches are tested, adopted and shared in a limited number of areas affected by climate change ('eco-villages').

Three projects were selected from a call for proposals, one in each of three types of ecosystems (coastal zones and islands, drylands, and highlands) deemed particularly vulnerable to climate change. This is to ensure that successful practices can be identified and replicated across the most vulnerable areas of the country, taking account of the specific characteristics of each type of ecosystem.

All projects encouraged the sustainable use of natural resources at the community level. Through this approach, it was expected that holistic, innovative and integrated methods could be tested, adopted and shared in a number of different areas of Tanzania affected by climate change. Local communities, especially women, were expected to be empowered and more able to cope with the worst consequences of climate change. Results from the eco-village projects were to be integrated into policy making, in line with the decentralisation process.


The first project has been implemented on Pemba Island by the local NGO Community Forests Pemba (CFP), in collaboration with Zanzibar government authorities. Six communities were involved, in Fundo, Uvinje, Kokota, Uwandani, Vitongoji and Pujini. Main activities included the transfer of land ownership from government to communities under secure tenure arrangements; the development of agroforestry and community-based afforestation and reforestation; the implementation of kitchen gardens and resilient agricultural systems supporting diversified fruit, vegetable and nut production; livelihood diversification through activities such as the production of fuel briquettes, fuel-efficient stoves and compressed earth blocks, beekeeping and composting; investment in rainwater harvesting and seed storage facilities; and the development of alternative energy systems.

The second has been implemented in Chololo village, near Dodoma, by the Institute of Rural Development Planning in partnership with local government authorities and other organisations. Main activities included awareness raising and improved natural resources management at the community level; the promotion of "climate-smart" agricultural innovations (in areas such as the use of improved seed varieties, improved post-harvest handling and storage, soil erosion control, soil fertility and moisture management, improved livestock breeding practices); diversification into new activities such as aquaculture, beekeeping and leather making; tree planting; improvements in water supply for human and livestock use, notably through water harvesting and improved storage; the building of energy-efficient stoves with local materials and the construction of domestic biogas plants; the installation of a local weather station; the construction of an eco-village centre; and a range of activities aimed at sharing results and disseminating innovation.

The third project was located in the Uluguru Mountains. It involved 7 villages across the Morogoro and Mvomero districts. It has been implemented by the Sokoine University of Agriculture. Main activities included the promotion and development of sustainable, climate-resilient agricultural practices supporting higher incomes for the population; the enhancement of water use efficiency in agricultural production; the promotion of reforestation and fuel-efficient stoves; the creation of enabling conditions to finance the adoption of new agricultural practices and investments; the establishment of community-managed organisations with adequate capacities for ensuring sustainable, fair and gender-inclusive use of natural resources; and the development of guidelines and best practices for scaling up at the national level.

Challenges and lessons learned
  • Local government capacity to effectively manage climate change planning and implementation must be addressed, and this capacity sustained in the longer term.
  • Community participation (with a focus on women) at all stages of the project cycle, trust building at various levels and a focus on education and awareness are key success factors.
  • Demonstrating the technical and economic feasibility of the proposed measures and interventions is essential.
  • Knowledge transfer from the eco-village experience to a wider group of stakeholders at local, regional and national levels must be actively managed.
  • Local farmers should be trained and supported in pilot villages so that they become trainers for other farmers (as well as students) and help disseminate innovation.
  • With activities that are dependent upon growing seasons and community consultation processes, sufficient time must be allocated to deliver results.
  • Mapping and territorial planning are useful tools to support adaptation in relation to natural resource management.
  • A range of skills and experience (in areas such as water, energy, livestock, forestry, cultivation, etc.) should be available in the implementation team, to enable rapid responses to the wide spectrum of community adaptation needs.

Eco-village projects will be proceeding until the end of 2013, on the basis of ongoing and some additional planned activities.

Building on the lessons learned from the first GCCA programme, a second GCCA Tanzania initiative has been implemented to scaling up the eco-village approach. It notably aimed to enhance institutional capability to mainstream climate-related issues at the local government level, and place extra emphasis on building and disseminating knowledge about climate-related vulnerabilities and climate change adaptation solutions that are appropriate in the context of specific agro-ecological zones in Tanzania.