"Promotion de systèmes agroforestiers intensifs en appui à la mise en œuvre de la stratégie nationale de Réduction des Emissions de gaz à effet de serres, liées à la Déforestation et à la Dégradation des forêts (REDD+) – Cote d’ivoire "

At a glance

Duration
2020-01-01 to 2024-12-31
Status
Active programmes
Country
Cote D'ivoire
Total budget
10,20 M€
Countries

Ivory Coast is a West African country of 322,463 km² bordered on the west by Liberia and Guinea, on the north by Mali and Burkina Faso and on the east by Ghana.  The country is divided into two major geographical regions: a forest area in the south (48.2% of the surface area) and a savannah area in the north (51.8% of the surface area).

The country's population has grown to 22.7 million in 2014 (RGPH, 2014), with an average annual growth rate of 2.6% in 2014 (against 3.8% in 1975). This rapid population growth is the result of high natural growth and strong immigration from neighboring countries (24% of the population is non-Ivorian). This demographic dynamic has led to increasing pressure on the country's natural resources, especially in the forest zone. 

The recent politico-military crisis (2002-2011) has had a very high economic and social impact on the country. The poverty rate was estimated at 46% in 2015 (INS 2015), ranking the country 172nd (out of 188) on the 2015 Human Development Index (HDI).

This socio-political situation has also seriously undermined ecosystem and environmental services. Indeed, significant and continuous deforestation, mainly caused by the transformation of forests into agricultural land, has increased considerably during this period (UNEP, 2015). 

Since 2012, Cote d'Ivoire has started a new economic momentum, with a growth rate of 8.3% in 2014. The agricultural sector is the main engine of economic growth in the country: it employs more than two thirds of the working population and produces about 28% of its GDP and more than 50% of its export earnings. Côte d'Ivoire is the world's largest producer and exporter of cocoa, which accounts for about one-third of all exports. Food-producing agriculture faces strong competition from cash crops such as cashew nuts, rubber, palm, coffee, cocoa, and cotton. Food crop farming remains largely itinerant in Côte d'Ivoire. It is not uncommon for women, who are primarily responsible for food production, to walk several kilometers to reach their production site while village land remains available and unused, even in the southern part of the country, because it is often depleted or of too low quality.

Furthermore, analysis of energy consumption in Côte d'Ivoire reveals that biomass accounts for 73% of total domestic energy consumption. About 87% of households use fuelwood or charcoal at a rate of 2 kg of charcoal or 4.6 kg of fuelwood per day (Ministry in charge of the Environment, 1997).

Despite a gas subsidy program by the Ivorian government, the diffusion of gas use is very heavy on the state budget and is relatively inefficient.

Consequently, wood is estimated to represent a significant annual harvest of around 9.7 to 15 million tonnes of wood equivalent (TEB) (Koné, 1992; Ouattara, 2008), showing that the exploitation of forest resources for cooking purposes is a non-negligible cause and therefore a direct factor in forest degradation (CIRES, 2009; SEP-REDD+ CI, 2017). 

All of these phenomena have led to an annual deforestation rate in the Ivorian forest of around 5.2%, which remains the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. (CIRES, 2009), which corresponds to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of 31,178 T eq. CO2 in 2014 (BUR1, 2017). 

This spectacular deforestation contributes to disrupting the rainfall regime, limits agricultural productivity, and thus creates a vicious circle of concern for the future of the agricultural sector that climate change will only aggravate (SEP-REDD+ CI, 2017).

Aware of the environmental challenges at the national level, the Government of Côte d'Ivoire, through the Ministry in charge of the Environment (MINSEDD), has embarked on a vast program to improve environmental and climate governance. 

In order to achieve the results of this program, the Government, through the Ministry in charge of the Environment (MINSEDD) and more specifically its Directorate in charge of the Fight Against Climate Change (DLCC), has expressed its interest in benefiting from the support of the Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA+).

This present action to combat climate change through the promotion of intensive agroforestry systems falls more specifically under the second pillar of the GCCA+ dealing with technical and financial support for developing countries and regions most vulnerable to climate change.

GCCA's action programme
Geographical scope
Initial GCCA/GCCA+ contribution
8,500,000.00 €

Objectifs spécifiques

Specific objective: Carbon storage, soil restoration, increased community income and food security are effective in the project area.




Produits

P1: Agroforestry perimeters integrating fast-growing trees into food crops are created/developed and communities formed;

P2: The climate monitoring and governance system is strengthened at the local and national levels.   

P3: The targeted communities are sensitized and promote agroforestry.




Activités

Component 1
P1: Agroforestry perimeters integrating fast-growing trees into food crops are created/developed and communities are trained.
A1: Participatory delimitation with the communities of the sites where agroforestry activities are to be carried out ; 
A2: Participatory implementation of adapted agroforestry perimeters on the identified sites;
Each site will have its own specificity in terms of community use, land tenure and the state of the ecosystems.
A3 Training of women's groups in intensive agroforestry, entrepreneurship, financial management and access to micro-financing and micro-credits;
Food-producing agriculture is largely practiced by women. The formation of groups of agroforestry women will enable various capacity building trainings. Some volunteers will be selected and accompanied in their access to micro-credit, which will contribute to the economic empowerment of these women.
A.4 Structuring and supervision of income-generating sectors to ensure their sustainability
This activity aims to promote market access for agroforestry products. It will allow the diversification of income sources to better cope with economic shocks related to climate variability. This could be done, for example, by setting up small economic interest groups to organise the supply chains (production, processing and distribution); developing village production of wood energy (accompanied by support for the development of an efficient charcoal production and marketing chain) and improving carbonisation yields in the context of the "useful forests" promoted by the forestry policy. Also, an economic analysis of an agroforestry model in association with wood energy/livelihood for small producers would be useful, to study and ensure the economic attractiveness of models (according to the regions targeted) allowing for greater diversification. 
A5 Support to producers in the process of acquiring land certificates ;
Difficulties in accessing land certificates due to costs and administrative red tape are a hindrance to investment in long-term activities, particularly in rural areas. This program will contribute to the land tenure security of agroforestry plots and thus allow the stabilization of activities and the sustainability of the action.

Component 2
P2: . The climate monitoring and governance system is strengthened at the local and national levels. 
Monitoring systems at MNV and CDN level are operational, allowing, among other things, the evaluation of the quantity of carbon stored in the agroforestry perimeters created and the monitoring of the country's commitments made at COP21 (CDN).
A1. Support for the development of a localized VNM pilot system (Measurement, Notification and Verification);
Training on the VVM systems will be organized for the central administration as well as for stakeholders. A localized NVM pilot system will be developed. This activity will serve as a test of community NVM to capitalize on in the future national NVM. The localized NVM pilots will contribute to the construction of national climate monitoring and governance tools. The assessment of the evolution of carbon storage will be carried out before the start of the project implementation, during the project, and possibly post-project.
A2. CDN monitoring system is in place
At the national level, a system for monitoring the achievement of the Determined National Contributions will be set up with the partnership of the administration in charge. Complementarity with other actions of other partners aimed at setting up a monitoring of the NDCs will be ensured. Annual reports will be produced and disseminated.
A.3 Local monitoring will allow linking climate commitments to local conditions. 
A local monitoring tool will allow the integration of continuous data by linking the information perceived or collected by the communities with scientific data in order to develop good practices locally. The comparative analysis will allow to refine the data used previously and to develop specific indicators in the medium and long term.

Component 3
P3: The targeted communities are sensitized and promote agroforestry. 
A1. Sensitization of village communities to the interest of agroforestry
These sensitizations will address the incentives for mobilizing communities to take ownership of the project proposals.
A2. Development of community radio programmes on reducing forest degradation through agroforestry ;
Support for the dissemination of "climate-sustainable development" programs and the development of thematic radio programs;
A3 Creation of a WEB platform linked to the Ministry of Environment's website and publication of an annual GCCA+ Côte d'Ivoire newsletter;
These products will enable the Ministry to take ownership of the program, its operation and its development.